Carbonisation (through technologies such as pyrolysis) takes place during thermal decomposition of organic material (biomass waste) under limited supply of oxygen, at temperatures ranging from 350 – 700°C. Biochar can be distinguished from charcoal, used mainly as a fuel, in that the ultimate application is use as a soil amendment with the intention to improve soil health and to reduce emissions from biomass that would otherwise naturally degrade to greenhouse gases. This 2,000 year-old practice converts agricultural waste into a soil enhancer that can hold carbon, boost food security, and discourage deforestation. Biochar also has appreciable carbon sequestration value. The carbon in biochar resists degradation and can hold carbon in soils for hundreds to thousands of years. These (“carbon negative”) properties are measurable and verifiable in a carbon emission offset protocol. Sustainable biochar production can create oil and gas by-products that can be used as fuel providing clean renewable energy.